Description: This tutorial a wires up the dummy JSON-based IoT devices using the IoT Agent for JSON devices so that measurements can be read and commands can be sent using NGSI LD requests sent to an NGSI-LD compliant context broker such as the Orion Context Broker.

The tutorial uses cUrl commands throughout, but is also available as Postman documentation

# Why are multiple IoT Agents needed?

"Ils en conclurent que la syntaxe est une fantaisie et la grammaire une illusion."

— Gustave Flaubert (Bouvard and Pecuchet)

As defined previously, an IoT Agent is a component that lets a group of devices sends their data to and be managed from a Context Broker using their own native protocols. Every IoT Agent is defined for a single payload format, although they may be able to use multiple disparate transports for that payload.

We have already encountered the Ultralight IoT Agent, which communicates using a simple bar (|) separated list of key-value pairs. This payload is a simple, terse but relatively obscure communication mechanism - by far the commonest messaging payload used on the Internet is the so-called JavaScript Object Notation or JSON which will be familiar to any software developer.

JSON is slightly more verbose than Ultralight, but the cost of sending larger messages is offset by the familiarity of the syntax. A separate IoT Agent for JSON has been created specifically to cope with messages sent in this format, since a large number of common devices are able to be programmed to send messages in JSON and many software libraries exist to parse the data.

There is no practical difference between communicating using a JSON payload and communicating using the Ultralight plain text payload - provided that the basis of that communication - in other words the fundamental protocol defining how the messages are passed between the components remains the same. Obviously the parsing of JSON payloads within the IoT Agent - the conversion of messages from JSON to NGSI and vice-versa will be unique to the JSON IoT Agent.

A direct comparison of the two IoT Agents can be seen below:

IoT Agent for Ultralight IoT Agent for JSON Protocol's Area of Concern
Sample Measure c\1 Sample Measure {"count": "1"} Message Payload
Sample Command Robot1@turn\left Sample Command {"Robot1": {"turn": "left"}} Message Payload
Content Type is text/plain Content Type is application/json Message Payload
Offers 3 transports - HTTP, MQTT and AMPQ Offers 3 transports - HTTP, MQTT and AMPQ Transport Mechanism
HTTP listens for measures on iot/d by default HTTP listens for measures on iot/json by default Transport Mechanism
HTTP devices are identified by parameters ?i=XXX&k=YYY HTTP devices are identified by parameters ?i=XXX&k=YYY Device Identification
HTTP commands posted to a well-known URL - response is in the reply HTTP commands posted to a well-known URL - response is in the reply Communications Handshake
MQTT devices are identified by the path of the topic /XXX/YYY MQTT devices are identified by the path of the topic /XXX/YYY Device Identification
MQTT commands posted to the cmd topic MQTT commands posted to the cmd topic Communications Handshake
MQTT command responses posted to the cmdexe topic MQTT commands posted to the cmdexe topic Communications Handshake

As can be seen, the message payload differs entirely between the two IoT Agents, but much of the rest of the protocol remains the same.

## Southbound Traffic (Commands)

HTTP requests generated by the Orion Context Broker and passed downwards towards an IoT device (via an IoT agent) are known as southbound traffic. Southbound traffic consists of commands made to actuator devices which alter the state of the real world by their actions.

For example to switch on a real-life JSON Irrigation System the following interactions would occur:

1. An NGSI-LD PATCH request is sent to the Context broker to update the current context of Irrigation System

2. this is effectively an indirect request invoke the on command of the Irrigation System.

3. The Context Broker finds the entity within the context and notes that the context provision for this attribute has been delegated to the IoT Agent.

4. Using the standard forwarding mechanism, the Context broker duplicates the PATCH request and forwards it to the North Port of the IoT Agent to invoke the command.
5. The IoT Agent receives this Southbound request and converts it to JSON syntax and passes it on to the Irrigation System.
6. The Irrigation System switches on the water sprinkler and returns the result of the command to the IoT Agent in JSON syntax.
7. The IoT Agent receives this Northbound request, interprets it and passes the result of the interaction into the context by making an NGSI-LD request to the Context Broker.
8. The Context Broker receives this Northbound request and updates the context with the result of the command.

• Requests between User and Context Broker use NGSI-LD.
• Requests between Context Broker and IoT Agent use NGSI-LD.
• Requests between IoT Agent and IoT Device use native protocols.
• Requests between IoT Device and IoT Agent use native protocols.
• Requests between IoT Agent and Context Broker use NGSI-LD.

## Northbound Traffic (Measurements)

Requests generated from an IoT device and passed back upwards towards the Context Broker (via an IoT agent) are known as northbound traffic. Northbound traffic consists of measurements made by sensor devices and relays the state of the real world into the context data of the system.

For example for a real-life Soil Sensor to send a humidity reading, the following interactions would occur:

1. A Soil Sensor makes a measurement and passes the result to the IoT Agent.
2. The IoT Agent receives this Northbound request, converts the result from JSON syntax and passes the result of the interaction into the context by making an NGSI-LD request to the Context Broker.
3. The Context Broker receives this Northbound request and updates the context with the result of the measurement.

• Requests between IoT-Device and IoT-Agent use native protocols.
• Requests between IoT-Agent and Context-Broker use NGSI-LD.

Note Other more complex interactions are also possible, but this overview is sufficient to understand the basic principles of an IoT Agent.

## Common Functionality

As can be seen from the previous sections, although each IoT Agent will be unique since they interpret different protocols, there will a large degree of similarity between IoT agents.

• Offering a standard endpoint to listen to device updates.
• Offering a standard endpoint to listen to context data updates.
• Holding a list of devices and mapping context data attributes to device syntax.
• Security Authorization.

This base functionality has been abstracted out into a common IoT Agent framework library.

#### Device Monitor

For the purpose of this tutorial, a series of dummy agricultural IoT devices have been created, which will be attached to the context broker. Details of the architecture and protocol used can be found in the IoT Sensors tutorial The state of each device can be seen on the JSON device monitor web page found at: http://localhost:3000/device/monitor.

# Architecture

This application builds on the components created in previous tutorials. It will make use of two FIWARE components - an NGSI-LD Context Broker such as Orion and the IoT Agent for JSON. Usage of the Context Broker is sufficient for an application to qualify as “Powered by FIWARE”. Both the Orion Context Broker and the IoT Agent rely on open source MongoDB technology to keep persistence of the information they hold. We will also be using the dummy IoT devices created in the previous tutorial.

Therefore, the overall architecture will consist of the following elements:

• The Orion Context Broker which will receive requests using NGSI-LD.
• The FIWARE IoT Agent for JSON which will receive southbound requests using NGSI-LD and convert them to JSON commands for the devices.
• The underlying MongoDB database:
• Used by the Orion Context Broker to hold context data information such as data entities, subscriptions and registrations.
• Used by the IoT Agent to hold device information such as device URLs and Keys.
• An HTTP Web-Server which offers static @context files defining the context entities within the system.
• The Tutorial Application does the following:

Since all interactions between the elements are initiated by HTTP requests, the entities can be containerized and run from exposed ports.

The necessary configuration information for wiring up the IoT devices and the IoT Agent can be seen in the services section of the associated docker-compose.yml file:

### Dummy IoT Devices Configuration

tutorial:
image: fiware/tutorials.ngsi-ld
hostname: iot-sensors
container_name: fiware-tutorial
networks:
- default
expose:
- "3000"
- "3001"
ports:
- "3000:3000"
- "3001:3001"
environment:
- "DEBUG=tutorial:*"
- "PORT=3000"
- "IOTA_HTTP_HOST=iot-agent"
- "IOTA_HTTP_PORT=7896"
- "DUMMY_DEVICES_PORT=3001"
- "DUMMY_DEVICES_API_KEY=4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov"
- "DUMMY_DEVICES_TRANSPORT=HTTP"
- "IOTA_JSON_LD_CONTEXT=http://context/ngsi-context.jsonld"


The tutorial container is listening on two ports:

• Port 3000 is exposed, so we can see the web page displaying the Dummy IoT devices.
• Port 3001 is exposed purely for tutorial access - so that cUrl or Postman can make JSON commands without being part of the same network.

The tutorial container is driven by environment variables as shown:

Key Value Description
DEBUG tutorial:* Debug flag used for logging
WEB_APP_PORT 3000 Port used by web-app which displays the dummy device data
IOTA_HTTP_HOST iot-agent The hostname of the IoT Agent for JSON - see below
IOTA_HTTP_PORT 7896 The port that the IoT Agent for JSON will be listening on. 7896 is a common default for JSON over HTTP
DUMMY_DEVICES_PORT 3001 Port used by the dummy IoT devices to receive commands
DUMMY_DEVICES_API_KEY 4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov Random security key used for JSON interactions - used to ensure the integrity of interactions between the devices and the IoT Agent
DUMMY_DEVICES_TRANSPORT HTTP The transport protocol used by the dummy IoT devices
DUMMY_DEVICES_PAYLOAD JSON The payload format used by the dummy IoT devices
IOTA_JSON_LD_CONTEXT http://context/ngsi-context.jsonld The location of the @context file used to define the device data models

The other tutorial container configuration values described in the YAML file are not used in this tutorial.

### IoT Agent for JSON Configuration

The IoT Agent for JSON can be instantiated within a Docker container. An official Docker image is available from Docker Hub tagged fiware/iotagent-json. The necessary configuration can be seen below:

iot-agent:
image: fiware/iotagent-json:latest
hostname: iot-agent
container_name: fiware-iot-agent
depends_on:
- mongo-db
networks:
- default
expose:
- "4041"
- "7896"
ports:
- "4041:4041"
- "7896:7896"
environment:
- IOTA_CB_HOST=orion
- IOTA_CB_PORT=1026
- IOTA_NORTH_PORT=4041
- IOTA_REGISTRY_TYPE=mongodb
- IOTA_LOG_LEVEL=DEBUG
- IOTA_TIMESTAMP=true
- IOTA_CB_NGSI_VERSION=ld
- IOTA_AUTOCAST=true
- IOTA_MONGO_HOST=mongo-db
- IOTA_MONGO_PORT=27017
- IOTA_MONGO_DB=iotagentjson
- IOTA_HTTP_PORT=7896
- IOTA_PROVIDER_URL=http://iot-agent:4041
- IOTA_DEFAULT_RESOURCE=/iot/json
- IOTA_JSON_LD_CONTEXT=http://context/ngsi-context.jsonld
- IOTA_FALLBACK_TENANT=openiot


The iot-agent container relies on the presence of the Orion Context Broker and uses a MongoDB database to hold device information such as device URLs and Keys. The container is listening on two ports:

• Port 7896 is exposed to receive JSON measurements over HTTP from the Dummy IoT devices.
• Port 4041 is exposed purely for tutorial access - so that cUrl or Postman can make provisioning commands without being part of the same network.

The iot-agent container is driven by environment variables as shown:

Key Value Description
IOTA_CB_HOST orion Hostname of the context broker to update context
IOTA_CB_PORT 1026 Port that context broker listens on to update context
IOTA_NORTH_PORT 4041 Port used for Configuring the IoT Agent and receiving context updates from the context broker
IOTA_REGISTRY_TYPE mongodb Whether to hold IoT device info in memory or in a database
IOTA_LOG_LEVEL DEBUG The log level of the IoT Agent
IOTA_TIMESTAMP true Whether to supply timestamp information with each measurement received from attached devices
IOTA_CB_NGSI_VERSION LD Whether to supply use NGSI-LD when sending updates for active attributes
IOTA_AUTOCAST true Ensure JSON number values are read as numbers not strings
IOTA_MONGO_HOST context-db The hostname of mongoDB - used for holding device information
IOTA_MONGO_PORT 27017 The port mongoDB is listening on
IOTA_MONGO_DB iotagentul The name of the database used in mongoDB
IOTA_HTTP_PORT 7896 The port where the IoT Agent listens for IoT device traffic over HTTP
IOTA_PROVIDER_URL http://iot-agent:4041 URL passed to the Context Broker when commands are registered, used as a forwarding URL location when the Context Broker issues a command to a device
IOTA_JSON_LD_CONTEXT http://context/ngsi-context.jsonld The location of the @context file used to define the device data models
IOTA_FALLBACK_TENANT openiot The tenant to use if no explicit tenant has been received from communications

# Start Up

Before you start you should ensure that you have obtained or built the necessary Docker images locally. Please clone the repository and create the necessary images by running the commands as shown:

#!/bin/bash
git clone https://github.com/FIWARE/tutorials.IoT-Agent-JSON.git
cd tutorials.IoT-Agent-JSON
git checkout NGSI-LD

./services create


Thereafter, all services can be initialized from the command-line by running the services Bash script provided within the repository:

#!/bin/bash
git clone https://github.com/FIWARE/tutorials.IoT-Agent-JSON.git
cd tutorials.IoT-Agent-JSON
git checkout NGSI-LD

./services orion|scorpio


Note: If you want to clean up and start over again you can do so with the following command:

./services stop

# Provisioning an IoT Agent

To follow the tutorial correctly please ensure you have the device monitor page available in your browser and click on the page to enable audio before you enter any cUrl commands. The device monitor displays the current state of an array of dummy devices using JSON syntax.

#### Device Monitor

The device monitor can be found at: http://localhost:3000/device/monitor.

## Checking the IoT Agent Service Health

You can check if the IoT Agent is running by making an HTTP request to the exposed port:

#### 1 Request:

curl -X GET \


The response will look similar to the following:

{
"libVersion": "2.12.0-next",
"port": "4041",
"baseRoot": "/",
"version": "1.13.0-next"
}


What if I get a Failed to connect to localhost port 4041: Connection refused Response?

If you get a Connection refused response, the IoT Agent cannot be found where expected for this tutorial - you will need to substitute the URL and port in each cUrl command with the corrected IP address. All the cUrl commands tutorial assume that the IoT Agent is available on localhost:4041.

Try the following remedies:

• To check that the docker containers are running try the following:

docker ps

You should see four containers running. If the IoT Agent is not running, you can restart the containers as necessary. This command will also display open port information.

• If you have installed docker-machine and Virtual Box, the context broker, IoT Agent and Dummy Device docker containers may be running from another IP address - you will need to retrieve the virtual host IP as shown:

curl -X GET \ 'http://\$(docker-machine ip default):4041/version'

Alternatively run all your curl commands from within the container network:

docker run --network fiware_default --rm appropriate/curl -s \ -X GET 'http://iot-agent:4041/iot/about'

## Connecting IoT Devices

The IoT Agent acts as a middleware between the IoT devices and the context broker. It therefore needs to be able to create context data entities with unique IDs. Once a service has been provisioned and an unknown device makes a measurement the IoT Agent add this to the context using the standard urn:ngsi-ld: prefix, a default type and the supplied <device-id> (unless the device is recognized and can be mapped to a known ID).

In the case of NGSI-LD, the definition of every attributes of each device entity should be made available in the supplied @context file. The base Device Smart Data Model can be found here. To allow for this discoverability and interoperability with third party systems, the IoT Agent must also be pre-supplied with a IOTA_JSON_LD_CONTEXT environment variable which hold the location of the @context file that is resent to the context broker with every request.

There is no guarantee that every supplied IoT device <device-id> will always be unique, therefore all provisioning requests to the IoT Agent require two mandatory headers:

• fiware-service header (equivalent to NGSILD-Tenant) is defined so that entities for a given service can be held in a separate mongoDB database.
• fiware-servicepath can be used to differentiate between arrays of devices.

Note that the NGSI-LD IoT Agents are backwardly compatible with NGSI-v2 and therefore currently still use the names of the older FIWARE headers for when provisioning.

For example within a smart city application you would expect different fiware-service headers for different departments (e.g. parks, transport, refuse collection etc.) and each fiware-servicepath would refer to specific park and so on. This would mean that data and devices for each service can be identified and separated as needed, but the data would not be siloed - for example data from a Smart Bin within a park can be combined with the GPS Unit of a refuse truck to alter the route of the truck in an efficient manner.

The Smart Bin and GPS Unit are likely to come from different manufacturers and it cannot be guaranteed that there is no overlap within <device-id>s used. The use of the fiware-service and fiware-servicepath headers can ensure that this is always the case, and allows the context broker to identify the original source of the context data.

### Provisioning a Service Group

Invoking group provision is always the first step in connecting devices since it is always necessary to supply an authentication key with each measurement and the IoT Agent will not initially know which URL the context broker is responding on.

It is also possible to set up default commands and attributes for all anonymous devices as well, but this is not done within this tutorial as we will be provisioning each device separately.

This example provisions an anonymous group of devices. It tells the IoT Agent that a series of devices will be sending messages to the IOTA_HTTP_PORT (where the IoT Agent is listening for Northbound communications).

#### 2 Request:

curl -iX POST 'http://localhost:4041/iot/services' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{
"services": [
{
"apikey": "4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov",
"cbroker": "http://orion:1026",
"entity_type": "Device",
"resource": "/iot/d",
"attributes": [
{
"object_id": "bpm", "type": "Property", "name": "heartRate",
"metadata": { "unitCode": {"type": "Text", "value": "5K" }}
},
{
"object_id": "s", "name": "status", "type": "Property"
},
{
"object_id": "gps", "name": "location", "type": "geo:point"
}
],
"static_attributes": [
{
"name": "category", "type": "Property", "value": "sensor"
},
{
"name": "supportedProtocol", "type": "Property", "value": "ul20"
}
]
}
]
}'


In the example the IoT Agent is informed that the /iot/json endpoint will be used and that devices will authenticate themselves by including the token 4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov. For an UltraLight IoT Agent this means devices will be sending GET or POST requests to:

http://iot-agent:7896/iot/d?i=<device_id>&k=4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov


Which should be familiar syntax from the previous tutorial.

The service group provisioning can also be used to define attributes mappings and common static_attributes. The attributes mappings define common aliases for anonymous incoming devices. For example the key gps can be defined to map the location GeoProperty.

When a measurement from an IoT device is received on the resource URL it needs to be interpreted and passed to the context broker. The entity_type attribute provides a default type for each device which has made a request, in this case anonymous devices will be known as Device entities. Furthermore, the location of the context broker (cbroker) is needed, so that the IoT Agent can pass on any measurements received to the correct location. cbroker is an optional attribute - if it is not provided, the IoT Agent uses the context broker URL as defined in the configuration file, however it has been included here for completeness.

### Provisioning a Sensor

The NGSI-LD specification mandates full URNs when creating context data entities, however the incoming messages from the devices will not be aware of this convention. Furthermore, the attribute name on the context data entity should match the short names found within the associated @context file. These mappings can be defined at the service group level as seen in the previous request, or they can be defined by provisioning each device individually.

Three types of measurement attributes can be provisioned:

• attributes are mappings of the active readings from the device.
• lazy attributes are only sent on request - The IoT Agent will inform the device to return the measurement.
• static_attributes are as the name suggests static data about the device (such as relationships) passed on to the context broker.

Note: in the case where individual ids are not required, or aggregated data is sufficient the attributes can be defined within the provisioning service rather than individually.

#### 3 Request:

curl -L -X POST 'http://localhost:4041/iot/devices' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{
"devices": [
{
"device_id": "temperature001",
"entity_name": "urn:ngsi-ld:Device:temperature001",
"entity_type": "Device",
"timezone": "Europe/Berlin",
"attributes": [
{
"object_id": "t",
"name": "temperature",
"type": "Property",
"unitCode": {
"type": "Text",
"value": "CEL"
}
}
}
],
"static_attributes": [
{
"name": "controlledAsset",
"type": "Relationship",
"value": "urn:ngsi-ld:Building:barn001"
}
]
}
]
}'


In the request we are associating the device temperature001 with the URN urn:ngsi-ld:Device:temperature001 and mapping the device reading t with the context attribute temperature (which is defined as Property with appropriate meta-data). A controlledAsset Relationship is also defined as a static_attribute, placing the device within the Building urn:ngsi-ld:Building:barn001.

Static attributes are useful as additional data on an entity to enable querying using the q parameter. For example the Smart Data Models Device model defines attributes such as category or controlledProperty which enable queries to be made like:

• Which Actuators currently have a low batteryLevel?

/ngsi-ld/v1/entities?q=category=="actuator";batteryLevel<0.1

• Which Devices measuring fillingLevel were installed before January 2020?

/ngsi-ld/v1/entities?q=controlledProperty=="fillingLevel";dateInstalled<"2020-01-25T00:00:00.000Z"

Obviously static data can be extended as necessary and can also include additional data such as a unique name or serialNumber for each device should the entity ID be too inflexible for queries.

/ngsi-ld/v1/entities?q=serialNumber=="XS403001-002"

Additionally devices with a fixed location static attribute can also be queried using the Geofencing parameters.

/ngsi-ld/v1/entities?georel=near;maxDistance:1500&geometry=point&coords=52.5162,13.3777

You can simulate a dummy IoT device measurement coming from the Temperature Sensor device temperature001, by making the following request.

#### 4 Request:

curl -L -X POST 'http://localhost:7896/iot/json?k=4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov&i=temperature001' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{ "t": 3}'


A similar request was made in the previous tutorial (before the IoT Agent was connected) when the sprinkler system was activated, you will have seen the state of each sensor changing and a Northbound request will be logged in the device monitor.

In this tutorial, now that the IoT Agent is connected, the service group has defined the endpoint upon which the IoT Agent is listening (/iot/json) and the API key used to authenticate the request (4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov). Since both of these are recognized from the request, the measurement is valid.

Because we have specifically provisioned the device (temperature001) - the IoT Agent is able to map attributes before raising a request with the Orion Context Broker.

You can see that a measurement has been recorded, by retrieving the entity data from the context broker. Don't forget to add the fiware-service and fiware-service-path headers.

#### 5 Request:

curl -G -iX GET 'http://localhost:1026/ngsi-ld/v1/entities/urn:ngsi-ld:Device:temperature001' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
-H 'Link: <http://context/ngsi-context.jsonld>; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"' \
-d 'attrs=temperature'


#### Response:

{
"@context": "http://context/ngsi-context.jsonld",
"id": "urn:ngsi-ld:Device:temperature001",
"type": "Device",
"temperature": {
"type": "Property",
"value": "3",
"unitCode": "CEL",
"observedAt": "2020-09-14T15:23:12.263Z"
}
}


The response shows that the Temperature Sensor device with id=temperature001 has been successfully identified by the IoT Agent and mapped to the entity id=urn:ngsi-ld:Device:temperature001. This new entity has been created within the context data. The t attribute from the dummy device measurement request has been mapped to the more meaningful temperature attribute within the context. As you will notice, an observedAt attribute has been added to the metadata of the attribute - this represents the last time the entity and attribute have been updated, and is automatically added to each new entity because the IOTA_TIMESTAMP environment variable was set when the IoT Agent was started up.

By provisioning the service group, it is also possible to open the IoT Agent to receive readings from anonymous devices. For example, it would be unnecessary to provision each individual device if all necessary data is available direct from the device itself.

For example, consider this request to the /iot/json endpoint:

#### 6 Request:

curl -iX POST 'http://localhost:7896/iot/json?k=4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov&i=motion003' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{"c": 1}'


Because the resource endpoint has previously been defined within the service group and the API Key matches, this is recognised as a valid measure and therefore a new Entity is created in the context broker with attributes mapped to based on the knowledge of the service group.

#### 7 Request:

curl -L -X GET 'http://localhost:1026/ngsi-ld/v1/entities/?type=Device' \
-H 'NGSILD-Tenant: openiot' \
-H 'NGSILD-Path: /' \


#### Response:

[
{
"@context": "http://context/ngsi-context.jsonld",
"id": "urn:ngsi-ld:Device:motion003",
"type": "Device",
"c": {
"type": "Property",
"value": "1",
"observedAt": "2020-09-17T09:41:56.755Z"
},
"category": {
"type": "Property",
"value": "sensor",
"observedAt": "2020-09-17T09:41:56.755Z"
},
"supportedProtocol": {
"type": "Property",
"value": "ul20",
"observedAt": "2020-09-17T09:41:56.755Z"
}
}
]


As you can see, the Entity type and static_attributes from the service group have been copied over to the entity in the context broker, however since the measure {"c": 1} does not have a mapping, the name of the Property has been copied directly from the received measure.

### Provisioning an Actuator

Provisioning an actuator is similar to provisioning a sensor. This time an endpoint attribute holds the location where the IoT Agent needs to send the UltraLight command and the commands array includes a list of each command that can be invoked. The example below provisions water with the deviceId=water001. The endpoint is http://iot-sensors:3001/iot/water001 and it can accept the on command. The transport=HTTP attribute defines the communications protocol to be used.

#### 8 Request:

curl -L -X POST 'http://localhost:4041/iot/devices' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{
"devices": [
{
"device_id": "water001",
"entity_name": "urn:ngsi-ld:Device:water001",
"entity_type": "Device",
"protocol": "PDI-IoTA-UltraLight",
"transport": "HTTP",
"endpoint": "http://iot-sensors:3001/iot/water001",
"commands": [
{
"name": "on",
"type": "command"
},
{
"name": "off",
"type": "command"
}
],
"static_attributes": [
{"name":"controlledAsset", "type": "Relationship","value": "urn:ngsi-ld:Building:barn001"}
]
}
]
}
'


Before we wire-up the context broker, we can test that a command can be sent to a device by making a PATCH request directly to the IoT Agent's North Port using the /ngsi-ld/v1/entities/ endpoint. It is this endpoint that will eventually be invoked by the context broker once we have connected it up. To test the configuration you can run the command directly as shown:

#### 9 Request:

curl -L -X PATCH 'http://localhost:4041/ngsi-ld/v1/entities/urn:ngsi-ld:Device:water001/attrs/on' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{

"type": "Property",
"value": " "

}'


If you are viewing the device monitor page, you can also see the state of the water sprinkler change.

The result of the command to turn on the irrigation system can be read by querying the entity within the Context Broker.

#### 10 Request:

curl -L -X GET 'http://localhost:1026/ngsi-ld/v1/entities/urn:ngsi-ld:Device:water001' \
-H 'NGSILD-Tenant: openiot' \
-H 'Link: <http://context/ngsi-context.jsonld>; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"' \
-H 'Accept: application/json'


#### Response:

{
"id": "urn:ngsi-ld:Device:water001",
"type": "Device",
"on_status": {
"type": "Property",
"value": {
"@type": "commandStatus",
"@value": "OK"
},
"observedAt": "2020-09-14T15:27:11.066Z"
},
"on_info": {
"type": "Property",
"value": {
"@type": "commandResult",
"@value": " on OK"
},
"observedAt": "2020-09-14T15:27:11.066Z"
},
"controlledAsset": {
"type": "Relationship",
"object": "urn:ngsi-ld:Building:barn001",
"observedAt": "2020-09-14T15:27:11.066Z"
},
"on": {
"type": "command",
"value": ""
},
"off": {
"type": "command",
"value": ""
}
}


The observedAt shows last the time any command associated with the entity has been invoked. The result of on command can be seen in the value of the on_info attribute.

### Provisioning a Filling Station

Provisioning a device which offers both commands and measurements is merely a matter of making an HTTP POST request with both attributes and command attributes in the body of the request.

#### 11 Request:

curl -L -X POST 'http://localhost:4041/iot/devices' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{
"devices": [
{
"device_id": "filling001",
"entity_name": "urn:ngsi-ld:Device:filling001",
"entity_type": "FillingLevelSensor",
"protocol": "PDI-IoTA-UltraLight",
"transport": "HTTP",
"endpoint": "http://iot-sensors:3001/iot/filling001",
"commands": [
{
"type": "command"
},
{
"name": "remove",
"type": "command"
}
],
"attributes": [
{
"object_id": "f",
"name": "fillingLevel",
"type": "Number",
"unitCode": {
"type": "Text",
"value": "C62"
}
}
}
],
"static_attributes": [
{
"name": "controlledAsset",
"type": "Relationship",
"value": "urn:ngsi-ld:Building:barn001"
}
]
}
]
}'


### Provisioning a Tractor FMIS System

Similarly, a Tractor with two commands (start and stop) and two attributes can be provisioned as follows:

#### 12 Request:

curl -L -X POST 'http://localhost:4041/iot/devices' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{
"devices": [
{
"device_id": "tractor001",
"entity_name": "urn:ngsi-ld:Device:tractor001",
"entity_type": "Tractor",
"protocol": "PDI-IoTA-UltraLight",
"transport": "HTTP",
"endpoint": "http://iot-sensors:3001/iot/tractor001",
"commands": [
{"name": "start","type": "command"},
{"name": "stop","type": "command"}
],
"static_attributes": [
{"name":"controlledAsset", "type": "Relationship","value": "urn:ngsi-ld:Building:barn001"}
]
}
]
}
'


The measures from the Tractor (e.g. gps) have already been defined within the service group and do not need to be repeated here.

The full list of provisioned devices can be obtained by making a GET request to the /iot/devices endpoint.

#### 13 Request:

curl -L -X GET 'http://localhost:4041/iot/devices' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /'


## Enabling Context Broker Commands

Having connected up the IoT Agent to the IoT devices, the Orion Context Broker was informed that the commands now are available. In other words the IoT Agent registered itself as a Context Provider for the command attributes.

Once the commands have been registered it will be possible to turn on the water, open and close the Smart Door and switch the Irrigation System on and off by sending requests to the Orion Context Broker, rather than sending JSON requests directly the IoT devices as we did in the previous tutorial.

### Activating the Irrigation System

To invoke the on command, the on attribute must be updated in the context.

#### 14 Request:

curl -L -X PATCH 'http://localhost:1026/ngsi-ld/v1/entities/urn:ngsi-ld:Device:water001/attrs/on' \
-H 'NGSILD-Tenant: openiot' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
-H 'Link: <http://context/ngsi-context.jsonld>; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"' \
--data-raw '{

"type": "Property",
"value": " "

}'


If you are viewing the device monitor page, you can also see the state of the water change.

### Activating the Tractor

To invoke the start command, the start attribute must be updated in the context.

#### 15 Request:

curl -L -X PATCH 'http://localhost:1026/ngsi-ld/v1/entities/urn:ngsi-ld:Device:tractor001/attrs/start' \
-H 'NGSILD-Tenant: openiot' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
-H 'Link: <http://context/ngsi-context.jsonld>; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"' \
--data-raw '{

"type": "Property",
"value": " "

}'


### Activating the Filling Station

Change the state of the Filling System, the add attribute must be updated in the context.

#### 16 Request:

curl -L -X PATCH 'http://localhost:1026/ngsi-ld/v1/entities/urn:ngsi-ld:Device:filling001/attrs/add' \
-H 'NGSILD-Tenant: openiot' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
-H 'Link: <http://context/ngsi-context.jsonld>; rel="http://www.w3.org/ns/json-ld#context"; type="application/ld+json"' \
--data-raw '{

"type": "Property",
"value": " "

}'


# Service Group CRUD Actions

The CRUD operations for provisioning a service group map on to the expected HTTP verbs under the /iot/services endpoint:

• Create - HTTP POST.
• Update - HTTP PUT.
• Delete - HTTP DELETE.

Use the resource and apikey parameters to uniquely identify a service group.

### Creating a Service Group

This example provisions an anonymous group of devices. It tells the IoT Agent that a series of devices will be sending messages to the IOTA_HTTP_PORT (where the IoT Agent is listening for Northbound communications).

#### 17 Request:

curl -iX POST \
'http://localhost:4041/iot/services' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
-d '{
"services": [
{
"apikey":      "4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov",
"cbroker":     "http://orion:1026",
"entity_type": "Thing",
"resource":    "/iot/d"
}
]
}'


This example obtains the full details of a provisioned service with a given resource path.

Service group details can be read by making a GET request to the /iot/services endpoint and providing a resource parameter.

#### 18 Request:

curl -X GET \
'http://localhost:4041/iot/services?resource=/iot/d' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /'


#### Response:

{
"count": 1,
"services": [
{
"commands": [],
"lazy": [],
"attributes": [
{
"object_id": "bpm",
"type": "Property",
"name": "heartRate",
"unitCode": {
"type": "Text",
"value": "5K"
}
}
},
{
"object_id": "s",
"name": "status",
"type": "Property"
},
{
"object_id": "gps",
"name": "location",
"type": "geo:point"
}
],
"resource": "/iot/d",
"apikey": "4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov",
"service": "openiot",
"subservice": "/",
"__v": 0,
"static_attributes": [],
"internal_attributes": [],
"entity_type": "Device"
}
]
}


The response includes all the defaults associated with each service group such as the entity_type and any default commands or attribute mappings.

### List all Service Groups

This example lists all provisioned services by making a GET request to the /iot/services endpoint.

#### 19 Request:

curl -X GET \
'http://localhost:4041/iot/services' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /'


#### Response:

{
"count": 1,
"services": [
{
"commands": [],
"lazy": [],
"attributes": [
{
"object_id": "bpm",
"type": "Property",
"name": "heartRate",
"unitCode": {
"type": "Text",
"value": "5K"
}
}
},
{
"object_id": "s",
"name": "status",
"type": "Property"
},
{
"object_id": "gps",
"name": "location",
"type": "geo:point"
}
],
"resource": "/iot/d",
"apikey": "4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov",
"service": "openiot",
"subservice": "/",
"__v": 0,
"static_attributes": [],
"internal_attributes": [],
"entity_type": "Device"
}
]
}


The response includes all the defaults associated with each service group such as the entity_type and any default commands or attribute mappings.

### Update a Service Group

This example updates an existing service group with a given resource path and apikey.

Service group details can be updated by making a PUT request to the /iot/services endpoint and providing a resource and apikey parameters.

#### 20 Request:

curl -iX PUT \
'http://localhost:4041/iot/services?resource=/iot/d&apikey=4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
-d '{
"entity_type": "IoT-Device"
}'


### Delete a Service Group

This example removes a provisioned service group by making a DELETE request to the /iot/services/ endpoint.

It means that requests to http://iot-agent:7896/iot/json?i=<device_id>&k=4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov (where the IoT Agent is listening for Northbound communications) should no longer be processed by the IoT Agent. The apiKey and resource parameters must be supplied in order to identify the service group to be deleted.

#### 21 Request:

curl -iX DELETE \
'http://localhost:4041/iot/services/?resource=/iot/d&apikey=4jggokgpepnvsb2uv4s40d59ov' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /'


# Device CRUD Actions

The CRUD operations for provisioning individual devices map on to the expected HTTP verbs under the /iot/devices endpoint:

• Create - HTTP POST.
• Update - HTTP PUT.
• Delete - HTTP DELETE.

Use the <device-id> to uniquely identify a device.

### Creating a Provisioned Device

This example provisions an individual device. It maps the device_id=water002 to the entity URN urn:ngsi-ld:water:002 and gives the entity a type water. The IoT Agent has been informed that the device offers two commands (on and off) and is listening on http://iot-sensors:3001/iot/water002 using HTTP. attributes, lazy attributes and static_attributes can also be provisioned.

#### 22 Request:

curl -iX POST 'http://localhost:4041/iot/devices' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data-raw '{
"devices": [
{
"device_id": "water002",
"entity_name": "urn:ngsi-ld:Device:water002",
"entity_type": "Device",
"protocol": "PDI-IoTA-UltraLight",
"transport": "HTTP",
"endpoint": "http://iot-sensors:3001/iot/water002",
"commands": [
{
"name": "on",
"type": "command"
},
{
"name": "off",
"type": "command"
}
],
"static_attributes": [
{"name":"controlledAsset", "type": "Relationship","value": "urn:ngsi-ld:Building:barn002"}
]
}
]
}
'


This example obtains the full details of a provisioned device with a given <device-id> path.

Provisioned Device details can be read by making a GET request to the /iot/devices/<device-id> endpoint.

#### 23 Request:

curl -X GET \
'http://localhost:4041/iot/devices/water002' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /'


#### Response:

The response includes all the commands and attributes mappings associated with the device.

{
"device_id": "water002",
"service": "openiot",
"service_path": "/",
"entity_name": "urn:ngsi-ld:Device:water002",
"entity_type": "Device",
"endpoint": "http://iot-sensors:3001/iot/water002",
"transport": "HTTP",
"attributes": [],
"lazy": [],
"commands": [
{
"object_id": "on",
"name": "on",
"type": "command"
},
{
"object_id": "off",
"name": "off",
"type": "command"
}
],
"static_attributes": [
{
"name": "controlledAsset",
"type": "Relationship",
"value": "urn:ngsi-ld:Building:barn002"
}
],
"protocol": "PDI-IoTA-UltraLight",
"explicitAttrs": false
}


### List all Provisioned Devices

This example lists all provisioned devices by making a GET request to the /iot/devices endpoint.

#### 24 Request:

curl -X GET \
'http://localhost:4041/iot/devices' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /'


#### Response:

The response includes all the commands and attributes mappings associated with all devices.

{
"count": 5,
"devices": [
{
"device_id": "water002",
"service": "openiot",
"service_path": "/",
"entity_name": "urn:ngsi",
"entity_type": "Device",
"endpoint": "http://iot-sensors:3001/iot/water002",
"transport": "HTTP",
"attributes": [],
"lazy": [],
"commands": [
{
"object_id": "ring",
"name": "ring",
"type": "command"
}
],
"static_attributes": [
{
"name": "controlledAsset",
"type": "Relationship",
"value": "urn:ngsi-ld:Store:002"
}
],
"protocol": "PDI-IoTA-UltraLight"
},
etc...
]
}


### Update a Provisioned Device

This example updates an existing provisioned device by making a PUT request to the /iot/devices/<device-id> endpoint.

#### 25 Request:

curl -iX PUT \
'http://localhost:4041/iot/devices/water002' \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /' \
-d '{
"entity_type": "IoT-Device"
}'


### Delete a Provisioned Device

This example removes a provisioned device by making a DELETE request to the /iot/devices/<device-id> endpoint.

The device attributes will no longer be mapped and commands can no longer be sent to the device. If the device is making active measurements, they will still be handled with default values if the associated service has not been deleted.

#### 26 Request:

curl -iX DELETE \
'http://localhost:4041/iot/devices/water002' \
-H 'fiware-service: openiot' \
-H 'fiware-servicepath: /'